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Authorship  (Quote)

All written contributions of the VerbaAlpina website are marked by name. The abbreviation "auct." marks the author(s) of a contribution, the abbreviation "trad." the translator(s). The software is developed essentially by Florian Zacherl.

(auct. Thomas Krefeld | Susanne Oberholzer – trad. Susanne Oberholzer)

Tags: Publikation



Concept description  (Quote)



Tags: Publikation



Data access layer  (Quote)



Tags: Kooperation Publikation Forschungslabor



Functional areas  (Quote)

The tasks and the performances of VerbaAlpina can be assigned to the following areas:
(1) documentation and diachronic analysis of the dialectal vocabulary, which is considered as characteristic in accordance with the onomasiological frame;
(2) cooperation with project partners for the mutual data exchange and data analysis;
(3) publication of the data stock, analytical texts and different material related to the project that is addressed partly to a specialist public, partly to the general public.
The functions (1) to (3) have already been activated with the first version 15/1 and are continuously extended. Two other functions are being prepared:
(4) data collection by means of crowdsourcing;
(5) installation of a research laboratory. VerbaAlpina has developed different geolinguistic tools: different cartographical depictions, levels of typification among other things. The research laboratory offers all interested users an individual use of these tools and the presentation of new, maybe also alternative analysis and results.

(auct. Thomas Krefeld – trad. Susanne Oberholzer)

Tags: Publikation



Knowledge horizon  (Quote)

This portal informs in three different dimensions:
(1) about extralinguistic reality ('things'),
(2) about concepts, or: categories in terms of content or rather onomasiological categories that are not tied to singular languages or dialects,
(3) about linguistic [[expressions|typification] of the languages and dialects investigated by the project.

The separate treatment of (2) and (3) is fundamental as the relevant concepts not always are documented by specific designations ('lexicalised') in the entire area under investigation. So, in wide parts of the Bavarian-speaking area, there is no word for the cheese made out of whey (cf. for this Alem. Ziger, Ital. ricotta, French sérac), whereas there often is no designation for the fresh, still unformed cheese mass (Bavarian. Topfen, German Quark) in the Romance dialects as well as in Standard Italian. The relation of (1) on the one hand, and (2) and (3) on the other hand is occasionally also more complicated as it seems at first glance: So, there are sometimes linguistic expressions with unclear semiotic status because it does not follow from the instances if it is a designation of a concept or a name for a thing we are dealing with. This is the case e.g. if a speaker calls a particular mountain pasture, for instance the one he uses himself, by a generic word as munt literally 'mountain' or as pastüra 'meadow'.

(auct. Thomas Krefeld – trad. Susanne Oberholzer)

Tags: Publikation



Language  (Quote)

The surface of this portal will be available in several standard languages, namely (in alphabetical order) in English, French, German, Italian, Rhaeto-Romanic (Rumantsch Grischun) and Slovenian. In the case of German, Swiss and Austrian standard variants are possible depending on the author of the text. Regardless of the chosen language the user always has access to all linguistic material in all recorded dialects and languages.

(auct. Thomas Krefeld – trad. Susanne Oberholzer)

Tags: Publikation



Language contact  (Quote)

There are two completely different types of language contact (to which variety contact also belongs) depending on their status of integration to the linguistic system. They can be fixed and integrated elements of the language, independent of the speaker ('loan words') – on the level of the linguistic system – or – on the level of the speaker – individual phenomena. These can be either habitual or occasional uses, so-called switchings. This reservation has also to be taken into account when interpreting older atlas materials where an informant provides a form close to the standard language or, in bilingual areas, a form of the respective second language. The theoretically fundamental difference is more or less likely in view of the linguistic data, but it is, however, actually never evident. Only the increase of informants, which becomes a quite realistic option with social media, promises us reliable information about this point.

(auct. Thomas Krefeld – trad. Susanne Oberholzer)

Tags: Publikation Crowdsourcing



Long-term archiving  (Quote)



Tags: Publikation



Modules  (Quote)

Cf. version control

Tags: Publikation



Notation  (Quote)

In the text contributions, the following, to a great extent usual principles of notation are used: linguistic forms (examples of instances) are written in italics; the meaning is written between single quotation marks, e.g. formaggio 'cheese'. Extralinguistic categories (concepts) are depicted using upper-case letters. The difference between linguistic meaning and concept is always especially important when there is no word for certain concepts in single languages/dialects, as in the case of CHEESE OF THE LIQUID AFTER THE FIRST COAGULATION OF THE SOLID MATTERS. This is called ita ricotta, fra sérac, Alemannic Ziger etc. However, a word in High German is missing.

(auct. Thomas Krefeld – trad. Susanne Oberholzer)

Tags: Publikation



Publication  (Quote)



Tags: Publikation



Romansh  (Quote)

In harmony with the Constitution of the Swiss Confederation, VerbaAlpina uses the German expression 'Rätoromanisch' (Rhaeto-Romanic) for the Romance varieties of the Grisons which traditionally cannot be rated as Italian (cf. Gross 2004 and Liver 2010). By using the term Rätoromanisch, we are by no means claiming that this Romansh of the Grisons goes together with Ladin (spoken in the Dolomite Mountains) and Friulian in the sense of a common 'language'. It was precisely for this concept which is not longer acceptable that the term 'Rätoromanisch' initially was coined by linguistics in the 19th century. The idea as such was developed by Graziadio Isaia [[Ascoli|Bibl:Ascoli 1873] and was denoted in Italian by the term 'ladino'.

(auct. Thomas Krefeld – trad. Susanne Oberholzer)

Tags: Publikation



System for citing  (Quote)



Tags: Publikation



Version control  (Quote)

VerbaAlpina is composed of the following modules:

- VA_DB: data stock in the (MySQL) project database (va_xxx)
- VA_WEB: programme code of the project portals web interface www.verba-alpina.gwi.uni-muenchen.de along with the accompanying WordPress database (va_wp)
- VA-MT: media data files (photographs, films, text documents, sound recordings), that are in the media library of the web interface

All three modules form a consistent whole with mutual nexus and dependencies and can therefore not be separated from each other. During the project term, the actual status of the modules VA-DB and VA_Web will be "frozen" simultaneously at regular intervals in form of an electronic copy. These frozen copies get a version number according to the scheme [calendar year]/[serial number] (e.g. 15/1). The productive version of VA gets the marking XXX.

The production of copies of the VA media center (VA_MT) is unthinkable due to the generally enormous size of media data files. For this reason, no copy of this module is created during the process of version control. That is why elements that once have been filed in the media center cannot be removed from it if only one single VA version is combined with them.

In the project portal, there is the possibility to change between the "productive" VA version (subject to constant changes) and the filed ("frozen") versions. In the portal itself, an appropriate colouring of the background or rather certain user elements will inform if the productive or on of the filed versions of VA is activated at the moment. *Exclusively* the filed versions of VA are citable.

(auct. Stephan Lücke – trad. Susanne Oberholzer)


Cover pictures of previous versions of VerbaAlpina

Barn at Fex Platta, in Val Fex near Sils Maria, Upper Engadine (Picture: Thomas Krefeld)

Chalet on Roßsteinalm, above Lenggries (Picture: Thomas Krefeld)

15/1

Autumn in South Tyrol, near Passeier Valley (Picture: Susanne Oberholzer)

15/2

Treatment of Mascherpa cheese, Lombardy (Picture: Formaggio Bitto )

16/1

Eibsee and Zugspitze, Grainau (Picture: Christina Mutter)

16/2

Hay harvest in Chiemgau (Picture: Groth-Schmachtenberger collection, open-air museum Glentleiten)

17/1

Hay harvest (Picture: Groth-Schmachtenberger collection, open-air museum Glentleiten)

17/2

Hay harvest (Picture: Groth-Schmachtenberger collection, open-air museum Glentleiten)

18/1

Winter landscape on the Plose above Brixen (I) (Picture: Stephan Lücke)

18/2

View accross Seiser Alm to the Odle Peaks (Picture: Stephan Lücke)

19/1

Zillertal Alps (Picture: Thomas Krefeld)

19/2

Piz Boè (left), Sas dla Crusc and La Varella (back right); below the road from Pordoi Pass and further down on the right the village Arabba (Picture: Beatrice Colcuc)

20/1

View from the Forcella Nuvolau towards Cortina d'Ampezzo (Picture: Beatrice Colcuc)

20/2



Tags: Publikation